A person can be a shareholder, director, officer or employee of a corporation -- or, a person can be all of these things. A person can resign from any/all roles except that of a shareholder -- for that, the person must sell or gift their shares to someone else.
A shareholder has the right to vote at shareholder meetings for corporate directors, and on extraordinary matters such as mergers and consolidations.
A director has the right to vote at board meetings so as to effect corporate resolutions which will "direct" the course of the corporation's business dealings.
An officer has authority to run the day-to-day operations of the corporation, including hiring and firing employees.
An employee is person who labors on the corporation's behalf.
If your husband resigns as an officer and employee, then he would have no legal authority to take funds from any corporate bank account unless he held a board meeting and voted to pass a resolution directing him to remove the funds (or, unless such a resolution was already passed).
However, the bank has no way of knowing whether your husband's status has changed, unless someone (like you) informs the bank of your husband's resignation -- which should prevent any further withdrawals from the account -- but, not like a court order would do. Banks have their own rules, so without a court order, you can't really know what the bank may do in response to your husband's attempt to withdraw funds.
As far as the corporate bills are concerned, if you or your husband have personally guaranteed any debts, then each of you is jointly liable for those debts regardless of your actions under the corporation. Otherwise, neither of you are personally liable for corporate debts, but the corporation is liable for its own bills.
You mentioned that the corp pays the ranch payment. The issue is: does the corporation hold title to the ranch? If so, then the ranch could be reached by a creditor to pay corporate debt. If the ranch is held by you and your husband as community property/husband and wife/etc., then it would be safe from creditor attack.
It seems to me that your husband has sort of "lost it" for the moment, because his decisions don't seem to have any particular goal. I can't imagine why he has resigned, except as a show of independence/outrage (or, perhaps simply financial ignorance).
Hope this helps clarify things for you.