The debt has to be reported to the credit bureaus and commercial credit agencies (e.g. Dun and Bradstreet) before it will affect credit rating. Most small rental companies aren't sophisticated enough to know that they can or how to make a D&B report.
If the matter is litigated and the rental company wins, then it will automatically be picked up by the credit reporting agencies.
So, until and unless it is reported/litigated it won't affect the company's credit rating. If you dispute the charges, then you have a right to have that noted and if you win the dispute there will be no impact on credit.
Also, know that renters are only responsible for damages that exceed normal wear and tear. I would seriously question any bill, unless you know that the damages claimed are reasonable.
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