I own a trucking company and to my knowledge there is no such law. A company can specify where you can purchase fuel as part of their standard practices. If there is an emergency, you can usually contact them and get approval. You do not have the authority to make the decision on your own without prior approval from the company. Some fleets have contracts with certain providers or credit cards. They can require you to comply with the terms of that contract.
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I happen to know a little about this topic and without trying to step on anyone's toes, I'll attempt to answer your question. Federal trucking regulation evolved around the independent contractor model to minimize costs for motor carriers. Over the years, regulations were put in place to riegn in motor carrier practices due to thrid party liability reasons. Part of these regulations are the leasing regulations. Motor carriers generally have lease arrangement with the drivers where they lease the truck. While operating under the motor carrier's authority, the driver has to keep track of miles driven within a state's border to pay fuel use tax charges. The pump price paid by driver contain a per gallon charge for state fuel taxes. Drivers keep track of fuel bought and miles driven to allow the reallocation of taxes paid. For example, a driver leaving state A after refueling and traveling to state B will have overpaid state A and underpaid state B. Thus the driver is entitled to a refund or credit of taxes paid to state A. The motor carrier or other defined operating authority entity hiring the trucker is required to keep track of this information because fuel tax credits are "escrow funds" as defined by 49 CFR 376.2(1) of the leasing regulations. 49 CFR 376.12(k)(3) &(4) provides that the lease specify and the carrier provide monthly accounting to drivers and that accounting of escrow fund be available to all drivers on a monthly basis. (k)(5) of the same section requires that a carrier pay interest on all funds in escrow. (k)(6) requires that conditions for return of escrow funds be in the lease and at termination an accounting of funds be provided to the driver. (k)(6) also requires return of unused fuel tax credits to drivers at termination.
49 CFR 376.12(i) requires that the lessor (driver) is not required to purchase or rent any products, equipment or services from the carrier as a condition for entering the lease. This regulation would prevent them from telling you where to purchase your fuel. THe other regulations guide the reimbursement of fuel tax credits. If you are an independent contractor, there must be written lease. If there is not, then there may be many other legal violations. If you are an employee, many states have laws requiring reimbursement of expenses, but I suspect you are an independent contractor because you are stating you can purchase your fuel whereever you want. You can email me for actual specific legal advice as this email does not create a lawyer client relationship and is research based only. I hope this answers your questions.
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