Thank you for your question.
Dischargeability of a debt in Chapter 7 can be successfully challenged IF the debt arose from the Debtor's "willful and malicious injury by the debtor to another entity or to the property of another entity". By named category, this includes drunk or drugged driving compensation to victims, failure to pay child support, and failure to pay alimony (now called "spousal support"). By court decisions going back a long way, it also includes most punitive damages awards. The part of the BK Code
dealing with this is § 523(a)(6).
Whether a court-imposed sanction for failure to respond to discovery requests falls into the non-dischargeable category most likely depends on the language of the court order imposing the sanctions.
Even then, debts listed on the schedules usually DO get discharged UNLESS the creditor successfully challenges them with an "adversary action" to determine the dischargeability of the debt. If the creditor does not complain and win, then the debt gets discharged. BUT if the creditor prevails at trial in the BK court adversary case, then the debt will survive the bankruptcy. So, attorneys for BK debtors just follow the rules, list all debts, and let the creditor(s) decide whether to challenge dischargeability. The creditors have a firm deadline to object, too, so there is no real suspense for the whole statute of limitations
period like there would be without a BK filing.
The landmark case on this portion of the BK discharge rules is Kawaauhau v. Geiger, 118 S.Ct. 974, 523 U.S. 57 (1998). You might want to research how your Circuit has interpreted that case in the 12+years since it came down.