A1. Under bankruptcy law, the bankruptcy trustee can avoid any asset transfer that was done to "defraud, hinder or delay" a creditor's claim, if the transfer was made within 2 years of the date of bankrutpcy petition. A creditor can attempt to ascertain whether the assets were transferred with the intent to defraud as part of the standard 363 hearing. If the creditor thinks that the debtor is hiding assets, then the creditor can file a contested action and engage in discovery so as to acqiure more information, which could include health issues.
A2: If you "come into money in the future," and it was money that you "sold" prior to filing bankruptcy, then that would be a fraud, and probably would cause the court to dismiss your entire bankruptcy filing, if it were discovered. It could also cause a criminal prosecution for perjury to the bankruptcy court. So, when you ask whether or not you're obligated -- you're obligated to disclose all of your assets at the time of filing, if you don't, then you could be held civilly and crimnally liable later.
A3: A final bankruptcy judgment discharging the debtor lasts forever. An ordinary creditor judgment expiration is based on the law of the State jurisdiction, where the judgment is obtained. Generally 10 years, with a 10 year renewal. But, there are exceptions (e.g., Ohio: 5 years, renewable indefinitely).
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