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A husband and wife are not required to file a bankruptcy jointly. One party can file without the other.
The effect on the non-filing spouse will be dependent upon whether there are joint debts and/or joint assets. If there are no joint debts and no joint assets, there may be little or no effect on the non-filing spouse. If there are joint debts and/or joint assets, the non-filing spouse would remain liable on the joint debt and the joint assets would need to be included in the filing.
Here are the Michigan bankruptcy exemptions (what you can keep):