A spouse can file bankruptcy with or without the consent of the other spouse. Obviously, if they file by themselves, then it would be an individual as opposed to joint case
What happens with businesses and other property depends on their ownership. If they are community property, then the trustee
can go after all of the community property in the bankruptcy. The trustee would not be able to go after separate property in the bankruptcy.
As far as the business and rental property, it would depend on how they are owned, when they were acquired, what amount of debt is owed on them, and how much they are worth. It is possible that the business and rental property could be lost in a bankruptcy if they had enough value that they could not be exempted. This is particularly true if the husband has a community property interest in those items.
The next step for you is to get an initial consultation with a bankruptcy attorney ASAP, so that you aren't suprised by your husband's filing and can plan for it.
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