Ok, first thing, if the cam sprockets did not turn more than about 30 degrees, then you shouldn't be in danger of bending valves. However, while you'll be fine without the crank locking pin, you absolutely need the cam lock bar. There are no timing marks other than the crank pulley line to the lower belt cover arrow. The cams are aligned by a metal bar with a large and small "pin" on either side of the bar, which locks the cams precisely into place. To make things even more precise, the cam sprockets are not keyed to the camshafts in any way. The sprockets and the nose of the camshafts are both conical, and when the sprocket is torqued to the end of the cam, the sprocket is effectively locked to the camshaft. When a belt job is done properly, the cam sprockets should be "popped" off the nose of the cam using a puller, cam bar to align the camshafts using those oddly-shaped endplates, belt installed, everything set to TDC, tensioner tensioned, and then the very last step is to torque the cam sprockets down.
I'll reiterate....you absolutely need a cam bar to set this right. Also, make sure you replace the hydraulic tensioner damper/piston, and not just the tensioner pulley.
Excellent cam bar for both 5v and 2v Audi/VW V6's: http://www.ecstuning.com/Audi-C5_A6-Quattro-V6_2.8L/Engine/Tools/ES11348/